Frequently asked questions

Frequently asked questions


If you have a specific question, please don't hesitate to call us 9AM-5PM MT Monday – Friday at 1.800.336.1977 or email or take advantage of our online chat feature.


Hammer Nutrition offers two superb long-distance fuels in powder form – Sustained Energy 2.0 and Perpetuem 2.0. Sustained Energy 2.0 (“SE” as it’s commonly referred to) was introduced in 1992; Perpetuem first became available in early 2003. The newer 2.0 versions of both fuels were introduced in 2022. Perpetuem 2.0 and Sustained Energy 2.0 are intended to be used as your primary or sole fuel when exercise goes beyond two hours.

Deciding whether to use Sustained Energy 2.0 or Perpetuem 2.0 (or both) will undoubtedly be influenced by personal preference; however, there are a few differences between these two time-proven fuels that can assist you in the selection process.

CALORIES: Every 2-scoop serving of Perpetuem 2.0 contains 180 calories. Sustained Energy 2.0 contains 200 calories per 2-scoop serving.

PRIMARY INGREDIENTS: Sustained Energy 2.0 contains a 7:1 ratio of complex carbohydrates to soy protein and is fat free. Perpetuem 2.0’s carbohydrate-to-protein ratio is approximately 8:1, with 2.0 gramsof healthy fat (soy lecithin, sunflower oil) added to every 2-scoop of the formula.

Three reasons for the inclusion of this specific fat in Perpetuem 2.0 are:

  1. To act as a natural preservative, increasing the “shelf life” of the carbohydrate and protein components
  2. To assist the body in more liberally releasing its fatty acids stores, which account for up to two–thirds of one's energy requirements in long bouts of exercise
  3. To slightly slow the rate of digestion and thus decrease hunger pangs

AUXILIARY NUTRITIENTS: Perpetuem 2.0 contains Sodium Phosphate (aka Sodium Tribasic Phosphate). This nutrient was not added to the Sustained Energy 2.0 formula. Primary among its benefits, Sodium Phosphate is a powerful acid-buffering nutrient, reducing the burning sensation effects of lactic acid buildup. Both fuels contain l-carnosine, which is also an effective acid-buffering/pH-neutralizing compound.

FLAVORS: Sustained Energy 2.0 has always come in a neutral (“plain”) flavor. Perpetuem 2.0 comes in four flavor options—orange, strawberry, chocolate, and caffe latte (includes 15 mg of caffeine per scoop).


We have noted that Sustained Energy 2.0 may be the ideal fuel choice when endurance exercise intensity is at a higher level (approximately 70–85% MHR), whereas Perpetuem 2.0 may be a more attractive choice the longer the athlete goes and when exercise intensity is at a more aerobic pace (under 70% MHR). Additionally, over the course of many years we have noted that Sustained Energy 2.0 may be the best option for very lean athletes (the “high metabolizer/hyper–metabolic” types), while Perpetuem 2.0—with its added healthy fat component—may be more appropriate for athletes with a naturally higher body fat percentage. The rationale for this suggestion is that athletes with a higher body fat percentage have a greater volume of calories available from body fat stores, which the healthy fat in Perpetuem 2.0 may effectively assist in accessing for use as energy.

Bottom line: With Perpetuem 2.0 and Sustained Energy 2.0 you have two great long distance fuel choices. When exercise goes beyond about two hours, you can use either product as your sole fuel, in tandem with each other, or as your primary fuel along with any of the other Hammer Nutrition fuels. Taking into account the earlier-listed differences between the products, as well as testing each product under a variety of conditions in your long–duration workouts, will allow you to determine which fuel works best for you.

I lost the scoop for one of your powder fuels. How do I determine the equivalent of one scoop?

No scoop? No problem! With the following conversion information, your "Where'd my scoop go?" problems are resolved!

1 Level Scoop (60 cc) = 4 TBSP + ½ tsp

1 Level Scoop (53 cc) = 3 TBSP + 2 tsp

Sustained Energy
1 Level Scoop (50 cc) = 3 TBSP + 1 tsp

1 Level Scoop (60 cc) = 4 TBSP + ½ tsp

Vegan Recoverite
1 Level Scoop (48 cc) = 2 TBSP + 2 tsp

Hammer Soy
1 Level Scoop (68.5 cc) = 4 TBSP + 2 tsp

Hammer Whey
1 Level Scoop (53 cc) = 3 TBSP + 1.75 tsp

Vegan Protein
1 Level Scoop (73 cc) = 3 TBSP + 2 tsp

Endurolytes Extreme Powder
1 Level Scoop (3 cc) = 1 tsp

Fully Charged
1 Level Scoop (9 cc) = 1.25 tsp

Some quick conversions:

  • 5 cc is equivalent to approx. 1 tsp
  • 15 cc is equivalent to approx. 1 TBSP


  • TBSP = tablespoon
  • tsp = teaspoon

Premium Insurance Caps contains beta-carotene, which is a precursor for vitamin A. However, it is not the same thing as fat-soluble vitamin A. Beta-carotene, which is virtually non-toxic (if not altogether non-toxic), is used make vitamin A in the body on an "as needed" basis. The only side effects that have been documented with extremely high doses of beta-carotene are diarrhea and a yellow-to-orange coloration to the hands and feet. These symptoms disappear upon cessation of beta carotene supplementation or lowering of the dose.

Regarding vitamin A toxicity, Dr. Shari Lieberman writes, "... [vitamin A] can, therefore, be toxic in large amounts. In general, a normal healthy adult must take at least 100,000 IU of vitamin A daily for a period of months in order to display any signs of toxicity. Early signs of toxicity are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, vertigo, blurred vision, muscular incoordination, and loss of body hair. Although all of these symptoms are reversible when vitamin A supplementation is stopped, I would not recommend this dose unless you are under professional guidance. Beta-carotene, on the other hand, can be given for long periods of time virtually without risk of toxicity."

Dr. Michael Colgan says this about vitamin A:

"The medical literature contains about 600 cases of vitamin A poisoning. A lot of these cases have been with women given daily prescribed mega-doses of over 330,000 mcg RE (1,000,000 IS) of cis-retinoic acid for skin complains. Such mega-doses are especially dangerous because they build up in your body fat. World expert on the toxicity of nutrients, Dr. John Hathcock of Iowa State University and the Food and Drug Administration, concludes that toxicity of vitamin A does not occur for most people in normal health until they take a dose above 1,000 RE per kilogram bodyweight. That's 70,000 mcg (230,000 IU) for a 70 kg (154 lb) athlete. He does cite some reports of headache, intracranial hypertension, and skin lesions in children and sick individuals at intakes of only 10,000 - 15,000 mcg RE, but none with normal adults. In any case, sensible supplementation [with vitamin A] does not even approach such figures. We have never found an athlete that needed more than 5,000 mcg RE (16,500 IU) [of vitamin A] per day."

Again, we do not use "straight" vitamin A in Premium Insurance Caps (or any of our products), but instead use beta-carotene. 7-14 capsules of Premium Insurance Caps contain 12,500 - 25,000 IU of beta-carotene, which is the suggested Optimal Daily Intake (ODI). This amount, and perhaps even higher amounts, is fine because our body uses beta-carotene selectively to obtain however much vitamin A is needed, and discards what it does not need.


The Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) has Kosher-certified the Hammer Nutrition products listed below under the Kosher Certification.


  Kosher Certified
  Hammer Gel (except nocciola)

  Kosher Dairy Certified
  Hammer Gel - nocciola
  Hammer Whey Protein

The following Hammer Nutrition products are certified kosher under the kosher supervision of Natural Food Certifiers.

  Kosher Certified
  Hammer Bars
  Hammer Vegan Protein Bars
  Hammer Vegan Protein
  Hammer Vegan Recoverite

  Kosher Dairy Certified
  Hammer Whey Protein Bar

The following Hammer Nutrition products are certified kosher under the kosher supervision of Kosher Service.


  Kosher Certified
  Endurolytes Extreme
  Endurolytes Extreme Powder
  Anti-Fatigue Caps
  Mito Caps
  Essential Mg
  Fully Charged
  Endurance BCAA+
  REM Caps


The following Hammer Nutrition products are certified kosher under the kosher supervision of EarthKosher.

  Kosher Certified
  Hammer CBD

The Vcaps® capsules used are manufactured by Capsugel, and produced using the raw material, hypromellose. Hypromellose is a cellulose material derived from softwood trees, mainly pine and spruce trees that are grown and harvested from plantations in the southeastern United States. The hypromellose that is used to manufacture these capsules complies with all compendia requirements as presented in the harmonized USP (United States Pharmacopeia), EP (European Pharmacopeia) and JP (Japanese Pharmacopeia) monographs.


Traditionally, supplements were labeled with an expiration, "Best by," or "Use by" date-usually four years from the time of manufacturein accordance with the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines. However, the FDA's Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) guidelines and regulations have been recently updated. Therefore, a number of Hammer Nutrition products now display a "Manufacture" date on the label (oftentimes listed as MFG).

For example, a product manufactured on January 17, 2012 will display "MFG 011712."

In addition, to make determining a Hammer Nutrition products shelf life more convenient for our customers, as of August 16, 2012, we are also including a "Best by" date on gels and powders. The "Best by" date is the recommended date by which you should consume a product for best results.

  • Hammer Gel has a "Best by" date of two (2) years from the time of manufacture.
  • All Hammer Nutrition powdered fuels and Perpetuem Solids have a "Best by" date of three (3) years from the time of manufacture.

Hammer Bars and Endurolytes Fizz will still list an expiration date on the label. For optimal quality and freshness, these products should be used/consumed prior to the expiration date, which is within the following time frames from the manufacture date:

  • Hammer Bars 18 months (produced after 1/1/13)
  • Endurolytes Fizz two (2) years

Hammer Nutrition supplements will list a "Manufacture" date on the label, shown as MFG. One should have no concern regarding the quality or freshness of our supplements, as long as the product has not aged more than four years since the MFG date shown on the bottle or label (making sure that products avoid excessive heat and/or sunlight).

I've noted what I would describe as a sharp smell when I open a container of Recoverite or Hammer Whey. What is the cause and is this normal?

The strong scent naturally occurs from the amino acids that make up the whey protein isolate in both Recoverite and Hammer Whey, and it is completely normal. One reason why the scent may be more pronounced in these products is because virtually all of the fat and lactose have been removed, yielding a more potent amino acid profile—over 90% actual protein—as compared to whey protein concentrate, which only yields, at the most, about 75-80% actual protein. The other reason is because we only use natural flavors in both products; these "mask" the naturally occurring smell of the amino acids much more subtly than artificial sweeteners, which we definitely do not want to include in the products.


Regarding the phytoestrogens that naturally occur in soy foods/soy protein, Dr. Bill Misner wrote about this topic in Endurance News #54 (see the article, Soy Protein - Friend or Foe?). Usually the question isn't whether or not soy reduces testosterone but rather if the phytoestrogens in soy raise systemic estrogen levels. Regarding that, here is some information from Dr. Misner that should provide the information you seek and alleviate your concerns. In particular, note these couple of sentences: "If a soy protein is consumed, the weak estrogen isoflavanoids in soy find and occupy numerous target organ cells, effectually blocking stronger estrogens in the circulation. In other words, soy's mild estrogen-like compound blocks the more potent hormonal estrogen compound from compromising health or regenerating mutagen effects in the DNA."

Here's the rest of the information from Dr. Misner...

"Estrogens are hormone steroids produced in female ovaries, by astrocytes in the brain, and in male testes (lesser extent). However as males age, testosterone production decreases, while estrogen levels increase proportionate to testosteone decrease. Most males by age 60-65 have as much circulating potent estrogen as they do testosterone. In general, toxic effects of estrogens begin when the sum of estradiol + estrone exceeds 50% of the body's total estrogens, i.e. when the proportion of estriol is less than 50%. Of the three types of estrogen, estradiol is 1,000 times more potent in terms of its ability to stimulate breast tissue growth compared to estriol. Specific abnormal cell growth estrogens stimulate is trophoblasts which are strongly implicated in cancer when they are produced in situations other than female pregnancy. Excess estrogen in women (or use of exogenous estrogens) is associated with the cause in kidney cancer, ovary cancer, and in men, is implicated in prostate cancer. Excess estrogen is problematic when levels increase later after the age of 35-40 and on..."

"Estrogen toxicity is dependent upon estrogen receptors in target organ cells. If a soy protein is consumed, the weak estrogen isoflavanoids in soy find and occupy numerous target organ cells, effectually blocking stronger estrogens in the circulation. In other words, soy's mild estrogen-like compound blocks the more potent hormonal estrogen compound from compromising health or regenerating mutagen effects in the DNA. Hypothetically, this may be why resveratrol is being acclaimed an anticancer ingredient because as a weak estrogen, it has been shown to preserve the integrity of cellular DNA in animal studies. The isoflavanoids in soy present similar effects. Daidzein & Genistein compete with Estrogens (including Estradiol 17-Beta) for occupancy of Estrogen Receptors. The Phytoestrogen properties of Daidzein & Genistein cause them to be weakly estrogenic. If Daidzein or Genistein bind with an estrogen receptor, it elicits less than one-thousandth the response of endogenous estrogens. The equilibrium dissociation constant for Daidzein & Genistein is 100-10,000 times greater than for Estradiol or DES, meaning that these isoflavanoids generate the ability to stay bound to an estrogen receptor is a fraction of a fraction of that of the more potent harmful estrogens. This goes for both male and females."

-- END --

It's important to note that as males age they produce more estrogen-like hormones and less testosterone-like hormones. Now, take a closer look at the info in the second paragraph. It's important because it points out that the phytoestrogens in soy protein act as anti-estrogens, occupying/binding with specific receptor sites, ones that would normally be occupied by endogenously produced estrogens. The benefit to this, as Dr. Misner writes, is that these phytoestrogens "effectively dilute the impact of the body's own production of estrogen, because they occupy the same receptor sites (estradiol receptor sites) that would otherwise be occupied by endogenous estrogen. Therefore plant phytoestrogens protect the body from the detrimental effects of excessive estrogen."

Here is some additional information regarding the benefits of soy protein...

Research supports the following conclusive statements for dietary Soy Protein Isolate (Hammer Soy) during endurance training:

1. Soy protein may lower hematocrit levels (i.e. Soy protein lowers blood thickness (blood viscosity). (1)
2. Soy protein may lower elevated blood pressure in hypertension patients (by inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme). (2, 3)
3. Soy protein may retard the progression of chronic kidney failure. (4)
4. Soy protein may help to prevent breast cancer. (5, 6, 7)
5. Soy protein may reduce the risk of colon cancer. (8, 9, 10)
6. Soy protein may help to prevent and treat prostate cancer. (11, 12, 13)
7. Soy protein (17-25 grams per day) may lower total, LDL, VLDL serum "Bad" cholesterols and raises "Good" HDL cholesterol. (14-20)
8. Soy protein (used in conjunction with dieting) may facilitate weight loss in persons afflicted with obesity. (21, 22)
9. Soy protein may lower elevated serum triglycerides levels. (23, 24)
10. Soy protein (indirectly) may facilitate muscle growth (by enhancing nitrogen retention which helps to prevent the catabolism of endogenous proteins in the muscles). (25)
11. Soy protein may help to prevent osteoporosis by increasing bone density. (26, 27, 28)
12. Soy protein (60 grams per day) may reduce the number of hot flashes experienced by women during female menopause. (29)
13. Thyroid compromised persons should ask their physician about the use of soy with a thyroid problem. However, for most healthy athletes, Soy protein isolate alternated with other proteins is not as harmful as some report for healthy thyroid hormone activity. (30, 31, 32, 33, 34)

Alternating use of the GMO-free, vegetable protein, Soy Protein Isolate (Hammer Soy) with other lean protein sources is a healthy anabolic food source during periodic endurance exercise training.

1 Guang, M., et al. Effects of "Supro" high energy beverage powder on physiological function of athletes. The Research Section of Health and Nutrition, National Sports Commission.
2 He, J., et al. Effect of soybean protein on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 143(1):1-9, 2005. Full text of this study can be viewed at:
3 Yang, H. Y., et al. Soyabean protein hydrolysate prevents the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. British Journal of Nutrition. 92(3):507-512, 2004.
4 Fair, D. E., et al. Dietary soy protein attenuates renal disease \progression after 1 and 3 weeks in Han:SPRD-cy weanling rats. Journal of Nutrition. 134(6):1504-1507, 2004.
5 Badger, T. M., et al. Soy protein isolate and protection against cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 24(2):146S-149S, 2005.
6 Rowlands, J. C., et al. Soy and whey proteins downregulate DMBA-induced liver and mammary gland CYP1 expression in female rats. Journal of Nutrition. 131(12):3281-3287, 2001.
7 Petrakis, J., et al. A clinical trial of the chemopreventative effect of a soy beverage in women at high risk for breast cancer. Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Ca., & Department of Pharmacology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Al.
8 Badger, T. M., et al. Soy protein isolate and protection against cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 24(2):146S-149S, 2005.
9 Hakkak, R., et al. Soy protein isolate consumption protects against azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in male rats. Cancer Letters. 166(1):27-32, 2001.
10 Weiqun, W., et al. Dietary soy protein is associated with reduced intestinal mucosal polyamine concentration in male wistar rats. Journal of Nutrition. 130(7):1815-1820, 2000.


Our primary goal is to get fuels, supplements, and body care items (a.k.a. "consumables") to you as quickly as possible. We will not hold up orders that contain consumable items because of backordered non-consumable items.

However, achieving our goal for order expedition is complicated by clothing, gear, and accessories (i.e. NON-consumables) which may be backordered for lengthy periods due to long lead times (6-12 weeks).

Partial Shipment of Mixed Orders Guiding Policy

Consumables: If a consumable item will be out-of-stock for 4 working days or less, the order can be held and shipped complete. If a consumable item will be out-of-stock for 4 working days or less, and you elect to have your in-stock items shipped immediately you will pay regular shipping charges on the subsequent backordered item(s) when they are expedited. If the consumable item will be out of stock for more than 4 working days, we insist you be sent an immediate partial shipment of your in-stock item(s); and we will pay the cost of shipping the backordered consumable item, when it becomes available.

Non-Consumables: If a non-consumable item will be out-of-stock for 4 working days or less, the order can be held and shipped complete. If you elect to have in-stock items shipped immediately and back ordered non-consumables sent later, you will pay regular shipping charges on the subsequent backordered item(s) when they are expedited. If the out-of-stock non-consumable item will be out of stock for more than 4 working days, the order must be sent in separate shipments and you will be charged the cost of shipping the subsequent non-consumable item shipment.


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