Product Usage Questions

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Hammer Nutrition offers two superb long-distance fuels in powder form – Sustained Energy 2.0 and Perpetuem 2.0. Sustained Energy 2.0 (“SE” as it’s commonly referred to) was introduced in 1992; Perpetuem first became available in early 2003. The newer 2.0 versions of both fuels were introduced in 2022. Perpetuem 2.0 and Sustained Energy 2.0 are intended to be used as your primary or sole fuel when exercise goes beyond two hours.

Deciding whether to use Sustained Energy 2.0 or Perpetuem 2.0 (or both) will undoubtedly be influenced by personal preference; however, there are a few differences between these two time-proven fuels that can assist you in the selection process.

CALORIES: Every 2-scoop serving of Perpetuem 2.0 contains 180 calories. Sustained Energy 2.0 contains 200 calories per 2-scoop serving.

PRIMARY INGREDIENTS: Sustained Energy 2.0 contains a 7:1 ratio of complex carbohydrates to soy protein and is fat free. Perpetuem 2.0’s carbohydrate-to-protein ratio is approximately 8:1, with 2.0 gramsof healthy fat (soy lecithin, sunflower oil) added to every 2-scoop of the formula.

Three reasons for the inclusion of this specific fat in Perpetuem 2.0 are:

  1. To act as a natural preservative, increasing the “shelf life” of the carbohydrate and protein components
  2. To assist the body in more liberally releasing its fatty acids stores, which account for up to two–thirds of one's energy requirements in long bouts of exercise
  3. To slightly slow the rate of digestion and thus decrease hunger pangs

AUXILIARY NUTRITIENTS: Perpetuem 2.0 contains Sodium Phosphate (aka Sodium Tribasic Phosphate). This nutrient was not added to the Sustained Energy 2.0 formula. Primary among its benefits, Sodium Phosphate is a powerful acid-buffering nutrient, reducing the burning sensation effects of lactic acid buildup. Both fuels contain l-carnosine, which is also an effective acid-buffering/pH-neutralizing compound.

FLAVORS: Sustained Energy 2.0 has always come in a neutral (“plain”) flavor. Perpetuem 2.0 comes in four flavor options—orange, strawberry, chocolate, and caffe latte (includes 15 mg of caffeine per scoop).


We have noted that Sustained Energy 2.0 may be the ideal fuel choice when endurance exercise intensity is at a higher level (approximately 70–85% MHR), whereas Perpetuem 2.0 may be a more attractive choice the longer the athlete goes and when exercise intensity is at a more aerobic pace (under 70% MHR). Additionally, over the course of many years we have noted that Sustained Energy 2.0 may be the best option for very lean athletes (the “high metabolizer/hyper–metabolic” types), while Perpetuem 2.0—with its added healthy fat component—may be more appropriate for athletes with a naturally higher body fat percentage. The rationale for this suggestion is that athletes with a higher body fat percentage have a greater volume of calories available from body fat stores, which the healthy fat in Perpetuem 2.0 may effectively assist in accessing for use as energy.

Bottom line: With Perpetuem 2.0 and Sustained Energy 2.0 you have two great long distance fuel choices. When exercise goes beyond about two hours, you can use either product as your sole fuel, in tandem with each other, or as your primary fuel along with any of the other Hammer Nutrition fuels. Taking into account the earlier-listed differences between the products, as well as testing each product under a variety of conditions in your long–duration workouts, will allow you to determine which fuel works best for you.


HEED is a powdered sports drink that contains calories, a full-spectrum electrolyte profile, and key auxiliary nutrients. Endurolytes Fizz is a nearly-calorie-free, full-spectrum electrolyte replenishment product in effervescent tablet form.

Every scoop of HEED contains 110 calories and about the same amounts of electrolytes as one-half tablet of Endurolytes Fizz. While taking into account the many variables that determine how much electrolytic mineral support you need, most athletes find that 2-4 Endurolytes capsules of 1-2 Endurolytes Fizz tablets work extremely well. With that in mind, lighter-weight athletes will oftentimes find that 1.0 - 1.25 scoops of HEED in a water bottle (110 - 137.5 calories) will oftentimes cover their entire fueling requirements — fluids, calories, and electrolytes — for an hour. The same is true for most athletes who are doing short-duration workouts and require only minimal amounts of calories and electrolytes. Medium-weight athletes will find that 1.5 scoops of HEED will provide the appropriate amount of calories (165), but that 1-2 capsules of Endurolytes or ½ to 1 tablet of Endurolytes Fizz may be needed to cover electrolyte needs more completely. Heavier-weight athletes will find that 1.75 scoops of HEED (192.5 calories) should be sufficient, though up to 2.0 level scoops (~205 calories) is acceptable. These amounts will also provide 1.75 - 2.0 capsules’ worth of Endurolytes or approximately 1 tablet of Endurolytes Fizz. Additional amounts will be needed, usually in the amounts of 1-2 Endurolytes capsules or 1 tablet of Endurolytes Fizz.

During longer bouts of exercise, when Perpetuem or Sustained Energy is the primary fuel (and especially when concentrated, multi-hour bottles of either product are being used), Endurolytes Fizz is an ideal alternative to Endurolytes capsules, primarily for athletes who are either unable to swallow capsules during exercise, or who prefer to fulfill their electrolytic mineral needs via lightly flavored, effervescent (“fizzy”) electrolyte water.

A key point to remember is that if you put “X” amount of scoops of HEED or “X” number of Endurolytes Fizz in your water bottle, your dose is preset . . . you’ve basically put a ceiling on it, which can become an issue if what you’ve put in your bottle is proving to be insufficient (such as if the weather gets hotter). Therefore, we highly recommend that you carry extra Endurolytes Fizz tablets or Endurolytes capsules. You may end up not needing them, but you’ll feel better knowing that you have them within easy reach, should the conditions require more electrolytic mineral support than what you’re obtaining from however many scoops of HEED or Endurolytes Fizz tablets you’ve put in your bottle.

Lastly, you can most definitely add Endurolytes Fizz tablets to your bottle(s) of HEED to bolster the electrolyte content. If you’re adventurous, you can create a new flavor by, for example, adding Grape Endurolytes Fizz to Melon HEED, or numerous other creative combinations.

Bottom line: HEED = Calories + electrolytes; Endurolytes Fizz = Electrolytes only. Now you know the differences between these two great fuels!


HEED is a “carbohydrate only” drink mix that is great for bouts of exercise up to 2-3 hours in duration. Perpetuem is a “carb + protein + healthy fat” drink mix that is ideal for longer-duration workouts and races. The inclusion of protein in Perpetuem helps to satisfy the 10-15% of energy that must come from protein/amino acids during long-duration exercise. Without this protein donation the body is forced to cannibalize its lean muscle tissue to satisfy this small percentage of energy requirements. That decreases exercise performance, due to the excess amount of fatigue-causing ammonia that is produced, and it will also cause recovery after exercise to be significantly longer because there is a greater percentage of broken down muscle tissue that needs repairing. The healthy fat added to the Perpetuem formula gives the body a cue of sorts to let it know that it’s not depriving it of fat (the “you have to eat fat to burn fat” train of thought). As a result, the body releases its fatty acid stores more liberally so that the calories from them can be used to create energy more consistently and efficiently. As you can see, Perpetuem is a very complete “meal in a bottle” fuel for endurance exercise.

I love how Perpetuem works; however, I do not like to drink large volumes of flavored liquid hour after hour. Instead, I’ll make Perpetuem in a bit more-concentrated, multi-hour bottle, and I typically make a 4-hour bottle. I weigh ~200 pounds, so I personally use 1.5 scoops an hour, which supplies 202.5 calories, an amount that works well for larger athletes (190+ lbs.) Lighter weight athletes will find that 1 scoop (135 calories) to 1.25 scoops (168.75 calories) on an hourly basis works well. Again, though, instead of making a bottle each and every hour, I’d make one bottle that contained 6 scoops of Perpetuem. What I do is start with the bottle about 1/3 filled with water. I then add a couple of scoops, but the lid back on the bottle and shake vigorously. I repeat the process until I have my 6-scoop bottle completed. Now I have 4 hours of fuel in one bottle, which benefits me in two primary ways:

  • I don’t have to drink so much volume of flavored liquid hour after hour. Because I have 4 hours’ worth of fuel in one bottle, I only need to drink ¼ of the bottle every hour, augmenting that with plain water from another source (another water bottle, hydration pack, etc.) to take care of my hydration needs. I find that plain water quenches my thirst better than liquid fuels do, and drinking water to cleanse the palate makes taking another drink of fuel even more palatable.
  • Because I have 4 hours of Perpetuem in my bottle, I don’t have to stop and make more every hour, which saves me time.

A lot of athletes prefer using Perpetuem this way and it really does work well and save time. Using a Sharpie permanent ink pen, you could even mark your bottle off into 4 equal segments so that you’d have a visual of what line you need to drink down to every hour.

Perpetuem Solids is the exact same formula as Perpetuem in the powder drink mix. However, it takes 4 chewable tablets to equal 1 scoop (135 calories) of the powder version. You could use Perpetuem Solids as your sole fuel but that would require a lot of chewing. For me, I’d need to chew 6 Perpetuem Solids tablets per hour to meet my calorie requirements, and I personally think that much chewing would wear out my jaw. As such, I use Perpetuem Solids more as a part-time, fill-in-the-calorie-gap fuel… I don’t ever use it as my sole fuel.

That said, what a lot of athletes will do—and this is a completely acceptable option to provide a little variety in the menu—is to use 2 Perpetuem Solids + 1 serving/packet of Hammer Gel on the occasional hour. The solids will give you just about 67 calories, and the serving/packet of Hammer Gel will supply 90 calories. 167 calories per hour is the “sweet spot” for an awful lot of athletes.

Another option is to consume 2 packets of Hammer Gel to cover one hours’ worth of fueling needs, with one or both of them being one of the protein-containing flavors: Peanut Butter, Peanut Butter-Chocolate, or Nocciola (Hazelnut-Chocolate).

Bottom line is that I’d personally be using a multi-hour hour bottle of Perpetuem to cover most to all of my fueling needs. And if I needed a little variety in the menu, I can go with just Hammer Gel for an hour, or a Perpetuem Solids + Hammer Gel combination.

Lots of options and they’re all completely acceptable and highly effective.


No scoop? No problem! With the following conversion information, your "Where'd my scoop go?" problems are resolved!

1 Level Scoop (60 cc) = 4 TBSP + ½ tsp

1 Level Scoop (53 cc) = 3 TBSP + 2 tsp

Sustained Energy
1 Level Scoop (50 cc) = 3 TBSP + 1 tsp

1 Level Scoop (60 cc) = 4 TBSP + ½ tsp

Vegan Recoverite
1 Level Scoop (48 cc) = 2 TBSP + 2 tsp

Hammer Soy
1 Level Scoop (68.5 cc) = 4 TBSP + 2 tsp

Hammer Whey
1 Level Scoop (53 cc) = 3 TBSP + 1.75 tsp

Vegan Protein
1 Level Scoop (73 cc) = 3 TBSP + 2 tsp

Endurolytes Extreme Powder
1 Level Scoop (3 cc) = 1 tsp

Fully Charged
1 Level Scoop (9 cc) = 1.25 tsp

Some quick conversions:

  • 5 cc is equivalent to approx. 1 tsp
  • 15 cc is equivalent to approx. 1 TBSP


  • TBSP = tablespoon
  • tsp = teaspoon

The time-tested Endurolytes formula comes in three forms—capsules, powder, and effervescent tablets—each of which has its advantages. The encapsulated formula may be the best option, simply because in consuming them you will know with greater precision, as compared to an unknown amount consumed via a drink from a water bottle, exactly how much electrolytic mineral support your body is receiving.

For convenience, however, the powdered version of Endurolytes is hard to beat. Keep in mind, though, that this form of Endurolytes may not always dissolve completely, which means that at some point some of it tends to settle to the bottom of the water bottle or hydration system. For both convenience and to subtly and deliciously enhance the flavor of your water, Endurolytes Fizz is your best option.


We do not recommend it for two reasons. First, it is the amino acid glutamine that is responsible for the dramatic increase in human growth hormone (hGH) levels. Dr. Bill Misner writes, "Glutamine (2000 mg) has been observed to raise serum hGH 430% above sedentary values. During sleep, 85% of hGH is released, and the 6 grams of glutamine in each serving of Hammer Whey is adequate to cross blood brain barrier to raise nocturnal release of hGH." While both the pea and brown rice protein components in Hammer Vegan Protein contain glutamine, the amounts are not sufficient enough to positively influence hGH release.

Secondly, in order to effectively elevate hGH levels, minimal-to-no carbohydrates should be consumed; carbohydrates blunt natural hGH release. Each scoop of Unflavored Hammer Whey contains no carbohydrates, all flavored versions of Hammer Whey contain less than 1 gram of carbohydrates per scoop, while all flavors of Hammer Vegan Protein contains 5 grams of carbohydrates in each scoop. That may not sound like a very wide gap, but it's enough to make a difference when the goal is maximizing hGH release.

To safely raise hGH levels without risk to your endocrine system, we recommend mixing 1 scoop of Hammer Whey in 4-6 ounces of water only; not juice or milk as those carbs will hinder the process. This may safely raise hGH levels while you sleep by as much as 430% compared to the usual nightly spike. That's enough to have a noticeably beneficial effect on anabolic, muscle building/maintenance activity in the body.

Is It Okay To Mix Perpetuem Or Sustained Energy And Keep It Refrigerated?

It is perfectly acceptable to mix bottles of Perpetuem or Sustained Energy ahead of time, though for maximal potency we recommend consuming the pre-mixed bottle(s) within 48 hours’ time once mixed. Freezing the mixture is also completely acceptable, and there is no time limit on when you need to consume frozen Perpetuem or Sustained Energy. You may notice a small amount of crystals at or around the top of the bottle. This is due to the l-carnitine component in these two fuels, which is very hygroscopic (has an affinity for water). L-carnitine formed crystals may signal a slight reduction in potency of this amino acid; however, this crystallization effect is normal and harmless, and the product is perfectly acceptable for consumption.


Either, it's your preference!

Both products are ideal for use during exercise of any intensity lasting up to 2-3 hours.

Hammer Gel

Hammer Gel is a concentrated complex carbohydrate gel with the consistency of syrup. It is the best choice for athletes who prefer drinking plain water for hydration.

Offered in 12 flavors: Apple-Cinnamon, Banana, Chocolate, Espresso, Montana Huckleberry, Orange, Raspberry, Tropical, Vanilla, Nocciola (Hazelnut-Chocolate), Peanut Butter, and Peanut Butter-Chocolate.

Caffeine Quotient: Espresso contains 50mg and Tropical contains 25mg of caffeine per serving.


HEED is a powdered sports drink mix. It is the best choice for athletes who DO NOT like drinking plain water while exercising.

HEED comes in five flavors: Cherry Bomb, Lemon-Lime, Mandarin Orange, Melon, and Strawberry.

Caffeine Quotient: Cherry Bomb contains 25mg of caffeine per serving.


Either product can be used as a partial source of calories during ultra distance events to provide variety and flavor to your primary fuel sources, Perpetuem and/or Sustained Energy.


As long as the food you're eating doesn't contain protein, this is not really an issue. The PSA Caps formula contains three amino acids—alanine, glutamic acid, and glycine—which, when taken for 14 days or more, minimize the symptoms of an enlarged prostate [1, 2, 3]. The other amino acids in protein will compete/interfere with the absorption of the three amino acids in PSA Caps, so for optimal benefits PSA should be consumed 60+ minutes apart from protein-containing foods.

We recommend taking 1 capsule in the morning and 1 capsule at night. Keeping a bottle of PSA Caps on your nightstand next to your bed makes proper dosing easy. Have a glass of water nearby and take 1 capsule just before you turn out the light at night. When you wake up in the morning, take 1 capsule before you get out of bed.

REFERENCES: [1] Damrau, F. Benign prostatic hypertrophy: amino acid therapy for symptomatic relief. Am J Geriatr. 10:426-430, 1962.

[2] Feinblatt, H. M., et al. Palliative treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy: value of glycine, alanine, glutamic acid combination. J Maine Med Assoc. 46:99-102, 1958.

[3] Shimaya, M., et al. [Double-blind test of PPC for prostatic hyperplasia.] Hinyokika Kiyo. 16:231-236, 1970.


That's where Recoverite comes in, providing unsurpassed nutritional support to ensure you obtain the maximum value from your workouts and complete recovery after each training session and race.

What we do in training is definitely important, no question about it, but if we neglect to consistently take the proper steps to recover properly, we will never get the full value out of the time and energy spent in training. Remember, the gains we make in our training occur during recovery, but only in the presence of adequate rest and optimal nutritional support. If we don’t attend to that, we not only miss out on the benefits of our workouts, we can create more problems such as getting sick or injured. The key to kick-starting the all-important recovery process is the replenishment of high-quality carbohydrates and protein immediately after exercise (within the first 30 minutes, the sooner the better). When you give your body this kind of support when it's most receptive to replenishment, which it is the minute you stop exercising, it will respond by:

  • Storing more minutes of the premium, ready-to-use fuel (glycogen) in the muscle cells
  • Strengthening your immune system
  • Rebuilding muscle tissue stronger
  • Reducing aches and soreness

Recoverite and Organic Vegan Recoverite provides your body with the ideal 3:1 ratio of carbohydrates to protein, along with generous amounts of multi-beneficial glutamine (a whopping three grams per serving!), the potent antioxidant l-carnosine, and a full-spectrum electrolyte profile. The result is rapid and enhanced recovery, allowing you to obtain the maximum value from all of your workouts and ideally prepping your body for your next workout or event.



All Hammer Nutrition fuels are completely compatible with one another, so you can use them interchangeably as desired. This is especially beneficial in ultra-endurance events as it provides a greater variety of quality fuels to choose from. For example, you can use Perpetuem and/or Sustained Energy from start to finish, or you can occasionally switch to HEED and/or Hammer Gel to add variety. However, you should meet at least two-thirds of your fueling requirements from Perpetuem or Sustained Energy.

When you use Hammer Gel and HEED for events longer than two hours, you do not need to start with them and then switch to Sustained Energy or Perpetuem. You can use Hammer Gel and/or HEED at any time during your workout. An extra flask of Hammer Gel in your pocket can save the day if you have already drained your Sustained Energy or Perpetuem mix and you begin to flag with several miles still to go. It will give you a quick pick-up just when you need it, even if it's many hours into your event.

You can mix and consume Sustained Energy or Perpetuem three different ways depending on individual preference and logistical concerns. Please experiment with the following options to determine which works best for you.

  1. Gel or Paste: If you want to carry the highest volume of calories in the least amount of space, this is your best option. Sustained Energy or Perpetuem can be made into a super-concentrated, near paste-like consistency and dispensed from a Hammer Gel flask. Using a blender or bowl and spoon, mix scoops of powder with a small amount of water, gradually adding water as necessary to create the consistency desired. Remember that the heavier and more concentrated Perpetuem is mixed, the sweeter and stronger the flavor will become. Depending on how many scoops per hour you have determined you require, and based on how concentrated the mix is, each flask of Sustained Energy or Perpetuem can supply you with 2-4 hours of fuel. As with the multi-hour bottle, you must carry additional bottles of plain water or use a hydration system to meet your fluid requirements. Drink from them according to the temperature so that you are consuming amounts in the range of 20-25 ounces of plain water per hour, depending on the severity of the heat. As long as you have a water supply, you can go, go, go.
  2. The One-Hour Bottle: This method works best in training or racing situations where you have a support crew and vehicle. They can keep your mixed bottles chilled and prepare fresh bottles of fuel along the way. If you're without a support crew but still want to use this option for mixing, keep in mind that it's obviously less convenient, as you'll have to stop more frequently to mix your fuel drink. Also, because you are trying to fulfill both hydration and caloric requirements from one source, you have limited ability to adjust one without affecting the other. Either way, with or without a support crew, to make the one-hour bottle, mix the suggested number of scoops of Sustained Energy or Perpetuem for your bodyweight in a small (20 ounces) or large (24-28 ounces) water bottle. Consume one bottle hourly.
  3. The Multi-Hour Bottle: This is by far the most convenient method of fueling because it allows you to be self-contained for many hours, requiring only additional plain water along the way. The only limitation is how many scoops you can fit into a bottle. Determine your proper hourly intake in scoops by experimenting with the numbers from the dosage chart below. Let's say you've determined through testing that 2 scoops of Perpetuem per hour is your ideal caloric intake. You need a 4-hour fuel supply. Mix eight scoops (2 scoops x 4 hours) in a large bottle with as much water as will fit in. You may need to add a few scoops at a time to get it all to mix well. You then "nurse" this bottle, taking small sips every 15-20 minutes. In this concentration, the water in the mixed bottle does not contribute more than a couple of ounces to your hourly fluid intake needs. To meet your fluid requirements, you carry a second and possibly even a third bottle of plain water, or use a hydration system, or know where you can refill along your route. Drink according to the temperature/humidity and your exertion level so that you consume in the range of 20-25 ounces of plain water per hour. This way, as long as you can obtain water along the way, you're set for hours of hard training.

Perpetuem - Suggested Doses by Body Weight*:
0 - 120 lbs (approx 54.5 kg) - up to 3/4 scoop/hr. This provides approximately 101 calories.
120-155 lbs (approx 54.5-70 kg) - 1 scoop/hr. This provides 135 calories.
155-190 lbs (approx 70-86 kg) - 1.25 to 1.5 scoops/hr. This provides approx 169 to 202.5 calories.
190+ lbs (86+ kg) - up to 2 scoops/hr. This provides 270 calories.

Sustained Energy - Suggested Doses by Body Weight*:
0 - 120 lbs (approx 54.5 kg) - up to 1 scoop/hr. This provides 107 calories.
120-155 lbs (approx 54.5-70 kg) - 1 to 1.5 scoops/hr. This provides 107 to 160.5 calories.
155-190 lbs (approx 70-86 kg) - 2 to 2.5 scoops/hr. This provides approx 214 to 267.5 calories.
190+ lbs (86+ kg) - up to 2.75 scoops/hr. This provides approx 294 calories.


Let's say that the bike portion will take you six hours. You can make all six hours of fuel in two bottles. For example, if you have found (through testing in training) that two scoops of Perpetuem will provide an hour's fuel, put six scoops in and make a 3-hour bottle, fulfilling your hydration requirements with plain water (approx 20-28 fluid ounces/600-830 milliliters per hour) from another bottle or hydration system. Make two 6-scoop bottles and you've got your six hours worth of fuel taken care of.

Mix the bottles the night before the race and freeze them. That will keep them cold and palatable as they thaw during the bike portion of the race. If, however, the weather on race day is going to be very hot, or you don't have a way to keep the bottles cold until the bike leg, then try this method: mix and freeze one bottle as above, but in the other put only the six scoops of Perpetuem, and add no water.When you finish your first 3-hour bottle you will need to stop and take a few moments to add cold water to this second. It just takes a few seconds, but now you have a fresh, cold bottle of fuel for the second half of the bike ride. Using insulated bottles also helps, if you don't mind the slight extra weight.

One athlete who completed a hot-weather Ironman Australia used this method and wrote us saying, I did as you recommended - had the second bottle of dry Perpetuem powder in my bike Special Needs bag, and just added cool water. It only took 30 seconds or so and I was underway with a bidon of cold Perpetuem for the second half of the bike. Great suggestion, it works like a treat!


Super Antioxidant contains primarily water-soluble antioxidants, which neutralize specific free radicals. AO Booster is comprised of all fat-soluble antioxidants, which neutralize different free radicals, those that are fat-soluble-produced and that water-soluble antioxidants are not effective at neutralizing.

The answer to the second question is a resounding "YES!" Super Antioxidant and AO Booster supply a wide range of both water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants. If there were only one or two types of free radicals negatively affecting our bodies, we'd be able to get by with one, maybe two, antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E. The truth, however, is that there are several different free radicals, both water-soluble and fat-soluble, which is why a wide variety of antioxidants is necessary.

Additionally, not only do antioxidants work on a specific type (or types) of free radical, a large majority of them work synergistically supporting, augmenting, and enhancing the effects of other antioxidants. The saying, "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is quite appropriate when talking about antioxidants and how they work in the human body.

Our view is that the greater variety of antioxidants one can obtain, both from whole food sources and supplements, the greater the protection against numerous free radicals.

For more information about Super Antioxidant and AO Booster, please see the "Product Spotlight" article in Endurance News #86, which begins on page 6.


Perpetuem Solids, while they can be used as your sole source of calories, are best used as a part-time, solid-food source of calories. They are designed primarily to augment your use of the Hammer Nutrition liquid fuels, helping you reach your targeted hourly caloric total during exercise/competition, especially that lasting more than two hours.

One of the goals in making Perpetuem Solids was to have a product that would, well, be solid, but not so hard that chewing it would wear out your jaw, be difficult on your teeth, or irritate your gums. For some people—and this is due to how the tablet is processed—the consistency of Perpetuem Solids may seem to be slightly chalky when first chewed. Again though, our goal was to provide a high quality, solid-food source that was in an easy-to-chew tablet form, and we believe we’ve found the right combination between the product being too hard versus being somewhat chalky-to-powdery.

As far as the size of a Perpetuem Solids tablet is concerned, this is as small as we can make it in order to supply an acceptable amount of a calorie donation. Please remember that each tablet contains 33.3 calories, which isn’t a huge amount, and that is why the tablet is the size that it is. The best way to deal with the tablet size is to not try and chew & swallow the entire thing whole. Instead, break it in half or into smaller chunks; you’ll find that doing this is almost effortless.

Once chewed, the tablet will—at least to some degree—create a semi-paste-like consistency, some of which may stick to your teeth (think of it as being a little food for later!). Seriously, this is something that, all things considered, we believe is a minor inconvenience, especially compared to the gelatinous chew/cube energy products, which are loaded with refined sugar. For many, many months we tried to make a chewable, gelatinous version of Hammer Gel. However, after numerous tries we realized it simply could not be done without the inclusion of copious amounts of refined sugar, which we definitely were opposed to doing. That’s why we designed Perpetuem Solids, which is the same exact, time-proven formula as Perpetuem in the powder form - high quality calories from complex carbohydrates, GMO-free soy protein, a special soy-derived healthy fat, plus all of the complementary auxiliary nutrients. No refined sugar, no artificial colors, no artificial flavors, no artificial sweeteners.

Lastly, like any solid food source, you will need to wash Perpetuem Solids down with water or fluid from your fuel bottle. Some athletes have commented that they’ve found them to be a bit hard to get down; however, the overwhelming response we’ve received from thousands of athletes who have used Perpetuem Solids is that this is not a significant issue at all. The key is to consume Perpetuem Solids during periods of reduced intensity (not in the middle of a tough climb or during a sprint!) and, as mentioned earlier, to eat them gradually - chipping away at them, not trying to consume the entire tablet at one time.

Serving Size: Three Perpetuem Solids tablets contain 100 calories.

Suggested Doses by Body Weight

Up to 120 lbs (Up to 54.5 kg) 1-2 tablets/hr 33-67 calories
120-155 lbs (54.5-70 kg) 2-3 tablets/hr 67-100 calories
155-190 lbs (70-86 kg) 3-4 tablets/hr 100-133 calories
190+ lbs (86+ kg) 4-5 tablets/hr 133-166 calories



1) Perpetuem Solids tablets are not meant to be dissolved in water.

2) People with dentures or delicate teeth should use caution when consuming Perpetuem Solids.

» Learn more and purchase Perpetuem Solids


Regular intake of sodium phosphate (Race Day Boost's main ingredient) will cause the body to build up a tolerance to this particular substance, requiring that higher amounts will need to be taken in order to accrue the same beneficial effects. Additionally, the 193 mg of sodium that naturally occurs in each serving of Race Day Boost is unnecessary and undesirable, as our diets already contain excess amounts of sodium. Lastly, phosphate interferes with calcium absorption, which is obviously not beneficial for overall health.


Yes! You can definitely use the Hammer Nutrition supplements in a wide variety of combinations. They complement each other and are designed to work together. We recommend starting with the three Daily Essentials products - Premium Insurance Caps, Race Caps Supreme, and Mito Caps - and building your supplement program from there. A great resource to help you determine what supplements to consider adding to your program can be found in the Product Usage Manual (a.k.a. "the little red book"). Beginning on page 27, you'll notice that we've assigned a "hierarchy status" of sorts for each product, beginning with the Daily Essentials, followed by products we designate as "Very Important," then "Important," then "Specific Support." Keep in mind that these are not "set in stone" recommendations, but are intended to provide information to assist you with your supplement selections.

As far as "nutrient overlap" is concerned, most of the Hammer Nutrition supplements contain nutrients that are specific to that particular product, meaning that they're not found in other Hammer Nutrition products. However, on rare occasions you will see the same nutrient in a few different Hammer Nutrition supplements. What's important to know is that if there is replication of a nutrient in a variety of products, the combined total will not be excessive.

For example, you will find vitamin E (in the alpha tocopherol form) in Premium Insurance Caps, Race Caps Supreme, Mito Caps, and AO Booster. However, when you add up the total content of the vitamin E in all of these products - and this is assuming that you're taking all four of them at once - it's still well within the range of optimal dosing for vitamin E.

  • Premium Insurance Caps - 7 capsules = 400 IU of vitamin E
  • Race Caps Supreme - 2 capsules = 266 IU vitamin E
  • Mito Caps - 2 capsules = 25 IU vitamin E
  • AO Booster - 1 capsule = 38 IU of vitamin E

TOTAL = 729 IU of vitamin E

Given that the Optimal Daily Intake (ODI) for vitamin E is anywhere from 400 - 1200 IU, plus the fact that this vitamin E, once ingested, doesn't just sit there, do nothing, and accumulate (the body uses it!), the 729 IU of vitamin E that is supplied in these four products - and in the amounts listed above - is an excellent amount of vitamin E for daily use, especially for hard training athletes.


In moderate temperatures, a pre-mixed bottle of Perpetuem or Sustained Energy should be suitable for consumption for up to 5 hours, perhaps even slightly longer. In warm-to-hot weather, that consumption “window” will be shorter, as short as 2 hours in very warm weather. Freezing your pre-mixed bottle(s) of fuel the night before will extend their palatability (i.e., staying colder longer) and keep the mixture suitable for consumption for a longer period of time.


First, please keep in mind that the suggested amount of 7 capsules of Premium Insurance Caps daily is our general recommendation. In the chart below, you'll notice that our suggested dose can be as low as 4 capsules daily or as high as 14 capsules per day:

Unlike many vitamin/mineral supplements that contain inadequate Referenced Daily Intake (RDI) amounts of nutrients (keeping in mind that the RDI is the minimal standard for preventing nutrient-deficiency diseases), Premium Insurance Caps is formulated with Optimum Daily Intake (ODI) amounts of the highest quality vitamins and minerals, which supplies your body with higher amounts of nutrients, the quantities it needs for optimal health. As a result, it requires a few more capsules to fit these higher amounts of nutrients.


Every serving (1 scoop) of Whey Protein contains 15 grams of 100% whey protein isolate and 6 grams of glutamine. For athletes doing a purely strength workout (e.g. a weight training session in the gym), consuming 1 scoop of Whey Protein immediately after the workout is a great to provide the lean muscle tissue with the amino acids it needs to repair and rebuild. The glutamine in the product, among its many benefits, is ideal for helping maintain a strong immune system. Consuming 1 scoop of Whey Protein prior to bedtime is also a highly beneficial practice—the body receives an excellent dose of amino acids, which it will use during a time (sleep) when it does many of its reparation/recuperative processes, and the glutamine will elevate serum human growth hormone (hGH) levels, which has anabolic (muscle building) effects. Lastly, a serving of Whey Protein taken any time during the day is an excellent way to bolster your daily protein intake, helping you reach your optimal amount.

Every serving (2 scoops) of Recoverite contains 10 grams of the same exact whey protein isolate that's in Whey Protein, as well as 3 grams of glutamine. Every serving of Recoverite also contains 33 grams of complex carbohydrates; Whey Protein contains only 0-1 grams of naturally occurring carbohydrates (no added carbohydrates). Unlike a "strength only" workout, immediately after an aerobic/endurance workout the body needs these carbohydrates to replenish and increase depleted glycogen stores. Both the protein and glutamine components in Recoverite assist in the glycogen restoration process. The protein also supplies the amino acids needed to help repair and rebuild the muscle, and the glutamine supports healthy immunity. Recoverite (but not Whey Protein) also contains the trace mineral chromium polynicotinate (ChromeMate®), which maximizes insulin functioning (very important in the glycogen restoration process), and l-carnosine, which is a powerful antioxidant.


Yes, we believe that it's perfectly acceptable and highly beneficial to use REM Caps on a nightly basis. This is primarily due to the melatonin component, which has the following benefits associated with it:

  • Melatonin possesses neuroprotective effects - Age-related decline in the body's melatonin levels is associated with an increase potential for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
  • Melatonin provides protection against stroke - Research has shown that a deficiency in melatonin is correlated with an increase in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Conversely, adequate bodily levels of melatonin reduce high cholesterol and high blood pressure, which are some of the risk factors for stroke.
  • Melatonin an extremely powerful antioxidant - One well-known nutritionist has stated that melatonin is "one of the most powerful antioxidants ever discovered with a greater range of effectiveness than vitamin C, vitamin E, or beta-carotene..." Another highly respected nutritional scientist writes, "Melatonin neutralizes one of the most damaging free radicals, and does so five times more effectively than the antioxidant enzyme glutathione..." Speaking of glutathione, melatonin increases the endogenous production of this powerful antioxidant.
  • Melatonin possesses potential anti-aging benefits - Ongoing research is finding that melatonin may help extend lifespan by increasing levels of Sirt1, often referred to as the "longevity protein."

If you experience any issues with sleep, even if it's only occasionally, REM Caps is a "must have" product for you. However, even if you don't have sleep-related problems, given all the important roles that melatonin plays in the body, and with all of the benefits attributed to melatonin, we believe that REM Caps is a supplement that can and should be used regularly.


Absolutely! Tissue Rejuvenator contains several natural anti-inflammatory nutrients that will effectively alleviate joint and muscle pain, and without the potential side effects associated with NSAID medications. While you can certainly experiment with dosing possibilities, many ultra distance athletes have reported to us that one capsule every two hours works extremely well.


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